The term “cervicitis” means inflammation of the cervix or cervix. Clinically, women with cervicitis show an erythematous, edematous, and friable cervix.
The causes of inflammation of the cervix can be multiple: a vaginal infection (bacterial vaginosis, yeast infection, etc.), an allergic reaction (use of intimate hygiene products, spermicides, etc.) or a sexually transmitted disease (chlamydia, gonorrhea or others).
To treat cervicitis, it is important to determine what its cause is, in order to give a treatment directed to it. Typically, specialists order a vaginal culture and an endocervical culture.
The vaginal culture will serve to establish if there is any vaginal infection that may be altering the normal vaginal flora. Alterations in the vaginal microflora can modify the microbiome of the endometrium. Recent studies reveal that alterations in this could influence the implantation potential of the embryo.
The endometrial microbiome is the set of microorganisms that inhabit the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium) and that play an important role in its proper functioning. It seems that for proper reproductive functioning the endometrial microbiome must be dominated by bacteria from the Lactobacillus group. In the event of an imbalance in the endometrial microbiota, either because of an infection (endometritis) or because there is an inadequate growth of a non-lactobacillus strain of microorganisms, it could lead to a reduction in the implantation potential of that endometrium.
Mainly, the colonization of the uterine cavity comes from bacteria that ascend from the vagina. If in the vaginal culture we find any alteration (Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida albicans, …), its treatment is recommended so that this infection does not ascend towards the uterine cavity and cause an imbalance of the endometrial flora, thus altering the implantation capacity of that endometrium.
On the other hand, the endocervical culture will make it possible to rule out some sexually transmitted diseases, basically diseases caused by Chlamydia, Mycoplasma genitalium and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infections from these bacteria can ascend through the cervix and uterus, eventually affecting the fallopian tubes. When an infection affects the internal genitalia (uterus and adnexa) we speak of “pelvic inflammatory disease”. If the infection reaches the fallopian tubes, an inflammatory reaction of the walls of the tubes occurs that can end with the formation of adhesions (scars) and obstructions at the level of the tubes.
Thus, the presence of cervicitis should make us rule out possible sterility secondary to tubal pathology.