Cervical cancer continues to be one of the most frequent cancers in women worldwide, with the majority of deaths (up to 90% of them) occurring in countries with low socioeconomic status.
The cervix is the lowest part of the uterus and is made up of different types of cells: those that line the endocervical canal and those that line the cervix in the intravaginal area. It is at the border of these two epithelia, the so-called transformation zone, where almost all cervical carcinomas originate. However, the cervix can be invaded by other cancerous lesions due to the invasion of tumors that have their origin in nearby locations such as the mucosa that lines the uterus, vagina or rectum, for example.
However, primary cervical cancer, that is, cancer that originates in the uterine cervix, is a type of cancer that is associated with the long-term persistence of an infection by one of the 15 high-risk types of the virus. human papilloma (acronym in Spanish: HPV; acronym in English HPV).
The human papillomavirus is easily transmitted and it is estimated that up to 80% of women can get one of the high-risk types of HPV. However, it is also known that not all women who acquire an infection of these characteristics will develop uterine cancer since only in one case in 10 does the infection become permanent and will end up giving rise to the development of precancerous lesions, which, detected in time, they can be treated and prevent the progression of the disease to cervical cancer.