What is and when is clomiphene citrate treatment indicated for oligospermia?

Clomiphene citrate is a safe drug that acts as a selective modulator of estrogen receptors. It exerts its effects on the hypothalamic and pituitary systems, increasing the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which in turn act on the testicles, increasing the production of testicular testosterone and the production of sperm.

In men with oligospermia, normal testicular volume, and low or normal LH levels, clomiphene citrate therapy can improve semen volume, density, and motility parameters. However, the fertility results are mixed: some studies find no benefit and others show only a very small improvement in pregnancy rates.

Doctors do not generally recommend the use of clomiphene to treat male infertility, but it is sometimes prescribed because it is easy to use, safe, and inexpensive. Reported side effects include headache, dizziness, visual changes, gynecomastia, and testicular enlargement.

Therefore, clomiphene citrate is a safe and effective drug that can be used in men with oligospermia to improve semen parameters, although this improvement does not appear to have an impact on fertility.

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